Students of various educational institutes go on strike, almost yearly, demanding withdrawal of excessive fee hike. The tuition fees make up only about 13 per cent of annual expenditure in the present university education. It is now a formidable industry and the aim is to make money. Poor students, however, intelligent they may be, cannot afford to join colleges, professional institutions or courses. They may join such courses by putting their families under heavy debt of banks or financial institutions. Even in the USA, tuition fees contribute to about 15 per cent of the total annual expenditure on higher education. Nehru said: If all is well with universities, it will be well with the nation. Whereas Rabindranath Tagore once compared educated classes in India to A second storey in an old building that was added in, but unfortunately the architect forgot to build a staircase between them.
Though it is a constitutional obligation, the non-availability of funds and vested administrative setup have led to the mushrooming of universities, fake campuses, private enterprises and numerous makeshift centers of education as also fly-by-air foreign campuses. It has proved to be a great financial endeavor with hardly any risk involved because it does not come under VAT or any other financial constraints. India has by now more institutions of such type than colleges, an excellent opportunity to rope in knowledge seeking youth and those who desire to fly off to greener pastures.
The Central and state governments invoke ESMA to curb the voice of agitating people, but it takes no time to give benefits to politicians and bureaucrats. It is essential to please them so that a symbiotic balance is maintained as also to oblige a few of them. The government has failed to take effective steps to curb industrialization of education. Within hours the doles given in Parliament and honorarium were doubled but the 6 per cent expenditure of the GDP on education has proved to be dogma persisting right from the Kothari Commission recommendations for over four decades now.
Fireworks light up the sky during celebrations; they give a wonderful show of color and shapes that fascinate the eyes and minds of many. The beauty of the display often leads many to wonder where the colors come from. The short answer is that they are the result of the burning of metals placed in these explosives. These metals are elements of the periodic table that burn at different temperatures and give off colors at their melting points.
Red displays come from Lithium, Rubidium and Strontium. These metals give different intensities in color and some even play other roles. Lithium and Rubidium are metals in group one of the periodic table. Lithium gives a medium red color and is most useful, for this purpose in its carbonate form. Rubidium on the other hand gives a deep red/ violet-red flame and is also used to oxidize the mixtures in these explosives; without oxidation, they will not burn properly. Strontium burns with an intense red but it also has the job of stabilizing the elements used to make the fireworks.